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ISSN Approved Journal No: 2455-2631 | Impact factor: 8.15 | ESTD Year: 2016
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Issue: August 2022

Volume 7 | Issue 8

Impact factor: 8.15

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Authors Name: Jothi Priya , Nivesh Krishna R
Unique Id: IJSDR2107006
Published In: Volume 6 Issue 7, July-2021
Abstract: A hiccup is a sudden, repetitive involuntary contraction of the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles immediately followed by laryngeal closure. Hiccups are usually self-limiting, lasting up to a few minutes without any major clinical significance or the need for medical assistance. It may be the result of factors that trigger any of the three components of the reflex arc viz. the af-ferent limb, central limbic system or the efferent limb or any combination of neurotransmitters that assist the reflex arc. Despite its common occurrence, the pathophysiology and management of hiccups still remains unclear. Recent literature primarily consist of case reports which support the broad evidence of the numerous etiological factors and various drug treatments. Generally considered harmless, episodes of persistent or intractable hiccups may tend to have an underlying sinister pathology which may be easily overlooked. The etiopathogenesis has most often been at-tributed to lesions of the central and peripheral nervous system; with numerous documentations of other rare and unique case presentations which may be equally life-threatening. These cases require a thorough analysis of the symptoms and adequate investigations to arrive at a conclusive diagnosis. Therefore, the treatment modalities may encompass either pharmacological or non-pharmacological protocols or a combination of the two to effectively prevent persistent forms of hiccups that are capable of affecting the quality of life of the individual. This review aims to briefly discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, etiological factors, investiga-tions, diagnosis and the therapeutic modalities of hiccups.
Keywords: baclofen, hiccup centre, intractable hiccups, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, neurotransmitters, reflex arc
Cite Article: "THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF HICCUPS- A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW", International Journal of Science & Engineering Development Research (www.ijsdr.org), ISSN:2455-2631, Vol.6, Issue 7, page no.25 - 31, July-2021, Available :http://www.ijsdr.org/papers/IJSDR2107006.pdf
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Publication Details: Published Paper ID: IJSDR2107006
Registration ID:193445
Published In: Volume 6 Issue 7, July-2021
DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
Page No: 25 - 31
Publisher: IJSDR | www.ijsdr.org
ISSN Number: 2455-2631

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